Kisumu County

With more than one million residents, Kisumu County is home to the country’s third-largest urban area, Kisumu City. Lake Victoria comprises Kisumu County’s western border. Siaya, Vihiga and Nandi Counties lie to the north, Kericho to the east and Homa Bay to the south.

A little more than half (57 percent) of residents in Kisumu County use improved sanitation, with more 12 percent still practicing open defecation.

Only 54 percent of the population use improved sources of water, which might include protected springs, boreholes, piped water to kiosks or homes, and rainwater collection. The rest of Kisumu County residents rely on unimproved sources, including collecting water from unprotected wells and springs, Lake Victoria or rivers and ponds, or from a tanker truck or vendor.

The county is served by three main water service providers, yet the areas served by these companies only represent 37 percent of the total population in the county. These water service providers also suffer from poor management, lack of support, service delivery deficiencies and high non-revenue water, estimated at 45 percent. Non-revenue water is the difference between the volume of water supplied to a water service provider and what is sold to customers. It might include unbilled or unmetered consumption, illegal consumption, metering inaccuracies, leakage in distribution pipelines, service connections or storage infrastructure.

Key KIWASH interventions in Kisumu County include:

Water Access and Distribution

  • Supporting the county government and county-managed water service providers to improve efficiency of business operations, serve customers better, reach new customers and qualify for financing to expand services.
  • Developing and launching a strategic plan to guide the expansion and improved management of Kisumu County’s main water utility.
  • Strengthening the capacity of 33 WASH enterprises to improve operational efficiency, customer service and financial management, as well as the expansion of their customer base.
  • Improving water infrastructure, including installing more efficient pumps, building new storage tanks, installing meters to track water usage, installing solar hybrid pumping systems and laying new distribution pipelines for Kisumu Informal Settlements Project, Nyakach Water Supply, Nyahera Mkendwa Water Project, Sondu Miriu Right Bank Water Project, Ahero Catholic Water Project, Boya Community Water Project and Nyang’oma Community Water Project.
  • Establishing community associations to manage and protect water sources.

Governance and Policy

  • Advancing policies, together with the departments of water and health, that protect water sources, support WASH enterprises and promote the improvement of water access and supply in the county.

Sanitation and Hygiene

  • Promoting improved sanitation and hygiene practices through Community led social sanitation(CLTS), large scale Social and behavior change messaging (SBCC) and sanitation marketing with the goal of improved uptake and sustained hand washing at critical times, hygienic disposal of feces, food safety, household water treatment and safe storage of drinking water.
  • Enhancing capacity of health facilities in integrating Essential WASH actions (EWA) at ORT corners and MCH clinic points by equipping ORT corners, installing large volume hand washing facilities and distributing safe water and hygiene kits to pregnant women and mothers who visit health facilities  to encourage adoption of EWAs
  • Building capacity of a critical mass of frontline service providers particularly CHVs and CHEWS, artisans, masons and organized community groups to encourage adoption of desired WASH behaviors at household and community level.

Environmental Sustainability

  • Expanding source water quality protection through spring protection activities, water resource mapping in catchment areas, tree growing and erosion control activities.
  • Increasing climate change resilience in drinking water source planning, development and design of systems/services


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