Nairobi County


  • Little sisters of St FrancisPopulation: 4,397,073 people according to the 2019 population census.
  • Water access: 84 percent of the population accessing water from improved sources.
  • Latrine access: 76 percent connected to the main sewer while 19 percent accessing basic latrine.
  • County water service providers: Nairobi City Water and Sewerage Company (NCWSC).
  • Other key partners: County ministries of Health and Water and water, sanitation & hygiene (WASH) stakeholders actors.

The water and sanitation challenge

The high growth rate – more than 2.5 times the global urban rate – strains the city’s existing water and sewerage infrastructure. A third of the city’s population lives in informal settlements or slums, where many lack access to clean water and improved sanitation facilities. KIWASH found that the NCWSC suffered poor water quality, intermittent water shortages and high non-revenue water. Private WASH enterprises complemented the main utility in water service delivery. The enterprises were managed by volunteers or staff with low technical capacity. The enterprises also suffered poor infrastructure and unfair competition by cartels. Under sanitation and hygiene, about 61.5 per cent of the population use flush toilets as the main waste disposal method, while 32.1 percent use pit latrines. The rest of the population, approximately 4.8 percent have no means of waste disposal.

USAID KIWASH’s interventions

Supporting access to clean water

In Nairobi, KIWASH rolled out tailor made interventions such as training, coaching and mentoring coupled with strategic infrastructure investments to increase access to basic drinking water. The support saw 628 staff from NCWSC and WASH enterprises trained on business and financial planning, customer services and product development, technical operations and administration. Further, KIWASH supported four community water projects (Geosemic Water Company, Katwekera Tosha Network, Little Sisters of St. Francis Water Supply and Soweto High Rise) through infrastructure development at a total cost of USD 290,744.

Expanding sanitation services through strategic financing

KIWASH facilitated the development of the final draft of the Nairobi City County Sanitation Revolving Fund Policy, Bill and Regulations. The fund aims to address the challenge of insufficient investment in sewerage infrastructure despite a fast growing population in underserved areas in Nairobi. Through the fund, the county government mobilized private and public funds to improve and expand sanitation services. The final draft document is ready for presentation to the County Executive for approval following which it will be presented to the county assembly for legislation. In addition, 5,890 people adopted handwashing with soap during critical times while 6,425 people adopted safe treatment of household drinking water.


  • 107,605 people accessing basic and improved water courtesy of USAID’s assistance.
  • 1,210 gained access to improved sanitation or a shared sanitation facility.

Success stories

The county in numbers



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Address: UN Crescent, Gigiri
P.O Box 1863 - 00621
Nairobi, Kenya

The Kenya Integrated Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Project (KIWASH) - Nairobi, Kenya - [email protected]. This website is made possible by the support of the American People through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID.) The information provided on this Web site is not official U.S. Government information and does not represent the views or positions of the U.S. Agency for International Development or the U.S. Government. For more information review our Privacy Policy and Disclaimer. This website contains cookies like quantcast and chartbeat. They allow NationBuilder to monitor user activity in order to make improvements to the website. Involuntary personal information is not gathered or shared. Users can disable these cookies to prevent tracking user activity.